MD Shattuck, C Bizon, PB Umbanhowar, JB Swift, HL Swinney, Pattern Formation in Vertically Vibrated Granular Layers: Experiment and Simulation, Physics Of Dry Granular Media, ed. HJ Herrmann, JP Hovi, S Luding, Nato Advanced Science Institutes Series, Series E, Applied Sciences 350:613(6) 1998. [Citations: 1]. [pdf]
We report on pattern formation in experiments and simulations of vertically vibrated granular layers. We find that initially flat vibrated layers lose stability to sub-harmonic standing wave patterns when the driving acceleration is increased to about 2.5 times gravity. Patterns can be squares, stripes, hexagons, or localized structures (oscillons), depending on frequency and acceleration. Event driven-simulations show excellent qualitative and quantitative agreement with the experiments.